Bauhaus Movement

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Walter Gropius

The State Bauhaus was founded by Walter Gropius as a school of arts in Weimar in 1919. As the Bauhaus was a combination of crafts and arts, its nature and concept was regarded as something completely new back then. Today, the historical Bauhaus is the most influential educational establishment in the fields of architecture, art and design. The Bauhaus existed from 1919 to 1933 and today the world considers it to be the home of the avant-guard of classical modern style in all fields of liberal and applied arts. The resonance of the Bauhaus can still be felt today, essentially characterizing the image of German design abroad.


Bauhaus Movement

Art and Technology - A new Unity

In March 1919, Walter Gropius became the head of the Weimar Academy of Fine Arts, which he united with the former School of Arts and Crafts to establish the State Bauhaus Weimar. In addition to architecture and painting, the corresponding Bauhaus Movement also included dancing, the theater and photography. Today, as in the past, Bauhaus stands for a pursuit of a radical modernization of arts. Moreover, the Bauhaus has roots in German expressionism, as the photographer L. Moholy-Nagy and artists such as Lyonel Feininger, Oskar Schlemmer, Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee were involved in the Bauhaus.

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A new way of thinking

Synthesis of Crafts and Arts

A new way of thinking is born, which spreads across Europe and America in no time. Even today, the functionalist way and the love of the aesthetics of large areas and sharp geometries still shape the design of art and industry. While all of Europe was under the destructive influence of the Third Reich and the Second World War, America, on the other side, experienced its golden age. Since the beginning of the 20th century, no other style in architecture and design has influenced the modern style like the Bauhaus style has – both the classical modern style and the avant-garde. And the resonance is still present today, continuing to inspire architects and designers worldwide to fill the Bauhaus credo of "less is more" with new life.

Master of Form

Architects and Designer

Design for the future

Until the present day, the Bauhaus has been a synonym for brave, rational and functional schemes in art, architecture and design. The "cool" aesthetics still seems tremendously modern and is considered to be beautiful. In contrast, to the people that were faced with modern architecture for the first time in the 1920's, the new houses and Bauhaus items, whose appearance was certainly unusual back then, were often shocking.

Many prototypes of furniture and consumer goods are produced in the practical training, which can go into industrial mass production, when the "Bauhaus GmbH" is founded in 1925. Ideal items are intended to be produced for the future society under the motto of "the needs of the people instead of the need for luxury". With their plain and simple form, the Bauhaus products are a design revolution. Functionality comes first, or in other words: form follows function. Many of the products developed by Bauhaus have become an integral part of modern households, both the original designs and their derivatives, such as the cantilever chair, the Wagenfeld lamp or the Bauhaus wallpaper.

Some people, however, do not like the radical ideas and applications of the Bauhaus artists. From the very beginning, opinions differ strongly with regard to the items and buildings, which are something completely new for the society of the 1920's. Conservative circles have always been annoyed by the leftist and internationalist members of Bauhaus. When the National Socialists seize power in 1933, the Bauhaus is closed immediately. Many of the renowned artists emigrate to France, Great Britain, Switzerland and the US.

Bauhaus Movement

Weil das Bauhaus Mitte der zwanziger Jahre in Deutschland eine führende künstlerische Kraft der Avantgarde war, stand die Bewegung immer unter politischem Druck. 1925 musste das Bauhaus in Weimar schließen, und es übersiedelte in einen neuen Standort Dessau. In den zwanziger Jahren war das Flachdach ein Wahrzeichen für moderne Architektur, und aus diesem Grund könnte Gropius beschlossen haben, diese Art von Dach zu errichten. 1928 verließ Walter Gropius das Bauhaus als Direktor. Sein erster Nachfolger war der Schweizer Hannes Meyer, und dann war 1930 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Nachfolger Meyers. Da die drohende Welle der Nationalsozialisten erheblich zunahm, musste das Bauhaus Dessau 1932 endgültig geschlossen werden, obwohl Mies daraufhin ohne Erfolg versuchte, das Bauhaus in Berlin zu etablieren. Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs wurde das Bauhausgebäude beschädigt und 1975-76 restauriert.

Das Bauhaus war für viele Künstler, Architekten und Gestalter eine Ideologie, eine Überzeugung, nicht nur eine bloße Kunst- oder Architekturlehre. Das Experimentieren mit neuen Materialien und Formen brachte eine neue Lebenswelt mit sich.

Architekten und Designer

Der Bauhausstil ist einer der bedeutendsten deutschen Stile des 20. Jahrhunderts. Ursprünglich war das Staatliche Bauhaus eine Kunstschule. 1919 von Walter Gropius in Weimar gegründet, war sie von Art und Konzept her etwas völlig Neues. Heute gilt das Bauhaus als Heimat der Avantgarde und der Klassischen Moderne. Bekannte Vertreter des Bauhauses sind zum Beispiel Paul Klee und Wassily Kandinsky.

Das beginnende 20. Jahrhundert war die Zeit des Historismus, in der handwerklich geschaffene Ornamente und Verzierungen, die sich an historischen Vorlagen orientierten, in großen Mengen industriell reproduziert wurden. Walter Gropius wollte mit dem Bauhaus die Kunst von der Industrialisierung emanzipieren und das Kunsthandwerk wiederbeleben. Ein Leitbild im Bauhaus war daher die Idee, Architektur als Gesamtkunstwerk mit den anderen Künsten zu verbinden. Konsequent verkündete Gropius im Bauhaus-Gründungsmanifest von 1919: „Das Endziel aller bildnerischen Tätigkeit ist der Bau. (…) Architekten, Bildhauer, Maler, wir alle müssen zum Handwerk zurück!“. Im Staatlichen Bauhaus sollte der Unterschied zwischen Künstler und Handwerker aufgehoben werden. Das Bauhaus betrachtete die Kunst als Steigerung des Handwerks und wollte gesellschaftliche Unterschiede aufheben und die Kunst mit der Industrie versöhnen. Der Lehrbetrieb folgte dem Vorbild der mittelalterlichen Bauhütten. Die P rofessoren trugen den Titel „Meister am Bauhaus“. Alle Künstler und Handwerker bekamen den gleichen Vorkurs in Formen, Farben und Materialien. Gelehrt wurden alle Formen der Kunst.

László Moholy-Nagy führte ab 1923 die Ideen der Neuen Typografie am Bauhaus ein. Die Typografie spielt von nun an eine entscheidende Rolle in der Eigenwerbung des Bauhauses und in der Entwicklung eines unverwechselbaren Erscheinungsbilds für die Schule. Am Bauhaus Dessau übernahm Moholy-Nagys Schüler Herbert Bayer die Leitung der nun entstehenden Werkstatt für Typografie und Reklame. Innerhalb kurzer Zeit konnte er sie zu einem professionell arbeitenden Atelier für Grafik-Design ausbauen, das zunehmend auswärtige Aufträge erhielt. Ab 1928 führte Joost Schmidt als sein Nachfolger einen systematischen Unterricht für Schriftentwurf und Werbegrafik ein, den er auch auf das Thema Ausstellungsdesign ausdehnte. So entstanden experimentelle Präsentationsformen aus Architektur, Plastik, Fotografie und Typografie, die das Bild des Bauhauses auf Wanderausstellungen und Messen entscheidend prägen sollten.

Architecture begins where engineering ends Walter Gropius


Photo by Hossein Albert Cortez

Rethinking the world

The most important design school of all time

The artists with a vocation for Bauhaus are called "Master of Form", and they have a master craftsman on their side as a technical supervisor. Johannes Itten, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, who is also head of the metal workshop, and Josef Albers hold preliminary and elementary courses. Lyonel Feininger is head of the printmaking workshop, Gerhard Marcks of the pottery workshop, Georg Munch of the weaving workshop and Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee of the glass and wall painting workshop. Oskar Schlemmer is responsible for workshops for stone and wood sculpture as well as for the Bauhaus theater.

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The artists with a vocation for Bauhaus are called "Master of Form", and they have a master craftsman on their side as a technical supervisor. Johannes Itten, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, who is also head of the metal workshop, and Josef Albers hold preliminary and elementary courses. Lyonel Feininger is head of the printmaking workshop, Gerhard Marcks of the pottery workshop, Georg Munch of the weaving workshop and Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee of the glass and wall painting workshop. Oskar Schlemmer is responsible for workshops for stone and wood sculpture as well as for the Bauhaus theater.

Architekten und Designer

The German architect Walter Gropius (1833 to 1969), who became a US citizen in 1944, founded the Bauhaus Movement as a school of arts in Weimar, the city of Goethe. What was revolutionary about his concept was the combination of a wide variety of arts – architecture, sculpture and painting – with crafts and engineering. It was the general objective to create a visionary and utopian craft guild that would combine beauty with usefulness.

Until the present day, the Bauhaus has been a synonym for brave, rational and functional schemes in art, architecture and design. The "cool" aesthetics still seems tremendously modern and is considered to be beautiful.

Der Bauhaus-Stil ist wohl jener Bau- und Design-Stil, der wie kein anderer die Moderne seit Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts geprägt hat - sowohl die klassische Moderne als auch die Avantgarde. Und die Resonanz hält bis in die Gegenwart an und inspiriert immer noch weltweit Architekten und Designer das Bauhaus-Credo „Weniger ist mehr“ mit immer neuem Leben zu erfüllen.

Meanwhile, a constantly growing Social Media Community has established itself around the globe – referred to as Bauhaus Design Community – which is directed at the further development of the distinctly material style of architecture and design. Es ist der schillerndste Begriff der Design-Geschichte, deren Protagonisten sich gewiss nicht als ›klassisch‹ verstanden und deren Ideen bis heute nachwirken.

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The artists with a vocation for Bauhaus are called "Master of Form", and they have a master craftsman on their side as a technical supervisor. Johannes Itten, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, who is also head of the metal workshop, and Josef Albers hold preliminary and elementary courses. Lyonel Feininger is head of the printmaking workshop, Gerhard Marcks of the pottery workshop, Georg Munch of the weaving workshop and Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee of the glass and wall painting workshop. Oskar Schlemmer is responsible for workshops for stone and wood sculpture as well as for the Bauhaus theater.

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It is our vision to convey the spectrum of the Bauhaus culture, which still sets trends today. Hier kann das Bauhaus Medium, besonders mit Videos, AR-VR, WebVR und Live-Streaming die Kommunikation deutlich intensivieren - und zwar auf allen Plattformen und Devices. Egal ob es um Information, Wissensvermittlung, Kommunikation oder Unterhaltung geht. Dabei lautet unsere Devise - ganz Bauhaus-like: Die Technik muss der Idee folgen.

Um auch in Zukunft die Bauhaus-Bewegung in all ihren historischen, aber auch immer wieder neuen Facetten umfassend darzustellen, sind wir auf eure Unterstützung angewiesen. Der nächste Step ist der Ausbau der BAUHAUS MOVEMENT MEDIATHEK - mit neuen, hochwertigen Inhalten.

Dabei geht es nicht nur um Lizenzrechte oder Raritäten, sondern auch um den Einsatz neuer technischer Möglichkeiten, wie beispielsweise virtuelle Rundgänge in spektakulären Bauhaus-Objekten, Ausstellungen oder Museen.

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Wassily Kandinsky Everything starts from a dot


Animation by Alexey Berezyuk

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Since the beginning of the 20th century, no other style in architecture and design has influenced the modern style like the Bauhaus style has – both the classical modern style and the avant-garde. And the resonance is still present today, continuing to inspire architects and designers worldwide to fill the Bauhaus credo of "less is more" with new life. Meanwhile, a constantly growing Social Media Community has established itself around the globe – referred to as Bauhaus Design Community – which is directed at the further development of the distinctly material style of architecture and design.

The Bauhaus Movement Network currently comprises the following platforms: Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Tumblr, Ello, Pinterest, Wordpress and YouTube. We aim to emphasize innovation with our expertise in order to provide a convincing, visual presence of the Bauhaus culture. Following the motto of "A picture is worth a thousand words" we would like to start delivering video content to the Bauhaus Community on the topic of "Bauhaus Design & Architecture". No other term in the history of design has more facets, and its protagonists certainly did not consider themselves to be ›classical‹, with their ideas still having an impact today.

Less is more Ludwig Mies van der Rohe


Photo by Peter Guthrie